International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 382, Shrunken endosperm xenia 1, sex1

BGN  48:130
Stock number: BGS 382
Locus name: Shrunken endosperm xenia 1
Locus symbol: sex1

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Shrunken endosperm 6 = se6 (2, 7).
Shrunken endosperm 6 = se6f (7).
High lysine 5 = lys5 (9, 10).


Monofactorial recessive (2, 7, 9).
Located in chromosome 6HL (3, 9, 12); sex1.a is about 5.6 cM proximal from the msg36 (male sterile genetic 36) locus (2, 4) ; sex1.a is associated with SNP markers 1_0244 to 1_1246 (positions 71.39 to 134.55 cM) in 6H bins 05 to 08 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW844 (1); sex1.e (lys5.g) is associated with SNP markers 2_1158 to 2_0746 (positions 88.73 to 125.86 cM) in 6H bins 06 to 08 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW845 (1); sex1.k is associated with SNP markers 1_0427 to 1_0040 (positions 56.54 to 107.26 cM) in 6H bins 05 to 07 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW841 (1); sex1.a is located in a 4.2 cM interval between the EST-derived markers GBM5012 and GBM1063 (11); at about 163 Mb.


After the hard dough stage, kernels develop a depression in the center of the lemma which becomes progressively more distinct with maturity. The 1000-kernel weight of the mutant is about 75% of normal. The mature endosperm appears harder than normal endosperm. The mutant expresses xenia and kernels from heterozygous plants can be classified as normal or shrunken with an expected 3:1 ratio. Establishment and growth of mutant plants are normal ( 6, 8). Mutant plants have a higher lysine content in the endosperm than normal sibs (10, 14). Compared to Bowman, the Bowman backcross-derived lines for sex1.e (BW845) and sex1.k (BW841) exhibited a 10 to 20% reduction in kernel weights. Other characteristics were similar to those of Bowman (5).
No images

Origin of mutant:

A spontaneous mutant in Compana (PI 539111) (6, 7).

Mutational events:

sex1.a (GSHO 755) in Compana (PI 539111) (6, 12); lys5.f (Risø 13) in Bomi Abed (NGB 5096, PI 43371), sex1.d or lys5.h (Risø 86); sex1.e or lys5.g (Risø 29, GSHO 2474) in Carlsberg II (NGB 5085, CIho 10114) (10, 12); a variant, named sex1.k, observed in the progeny of a Bowman*4/Volla mutant 7175 retained in subsequent crosses to Bowman parental SNP markers in 6H and the sex1 phenotype (5).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

sex1.a (GSHO 755) in Compana; sex1.e from Risø 29 in Bowman (PI 483237, NGB 22812)*3 (GSHO 2071); sex1.e in Bowman*5 (BW845, NGB 22282); sex1.a in Bowman *7 (BW844, NGB 22281); sex1.k in Bowman*7 (BW841, NGB 22278).


1. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.
2. Eslick, R.F., and M.N. Ries. 1976. Positioning sex1 on chromosome 6. Barley Genet. Newsl. 6:21-22.
3.Falk, D.E. 1994. Creation of a marked telo 6S trisomic for chromosome 6. Barley Genet. Newsl. 23:32.
4. Falk, D.E., M.J. Swartz, and K.J. Kasha. 1980. Linkage data with genes near the centromere of barley chromosome 6. Barley Genet. Newsl. 10:13-16.
5. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).
6. Jarvi, A.J. 1970. Shrunken endosperm mutants in barley, Hordeum vulgare. Ph.D. Thesis. Montana State Univ., Bozeman.
7. Jarvi, A.J., and R.F. Eslick. 1971. BGS 382, Normal vs. shrunken endosperm, se6. Barley Genet. Newsl. 1:193.
8. Jarvi, A.J., and R.F. Eslick. 1975. Shrunken endosperm mutants in barley. Crop Sci. 15:363-366.
9. Jensen, J. 1979. Chromosomal location of one dominant and four recessive high-lysine genes in barley mutants. Vol. 1. p. 89-96. In Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes. Proc. Int. Symp., Neuherburg, Germany, 1978. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.
10. Jensen, J., and H. Doll. 1979. Gene symbols for barley high-lysine mutants. Barley Genet. Newsl. 9:33-37.
11. Röder, M.S., C. Kaiser, and W. Weschke. 2006. Molecular mapping of the shrunken endosperm genes seg8 and sex1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genome 49:1209-1214.
12. Ullrich, S.E., and R.F. Eslick. 1978. Allelism evidence for high lysine, shrunken endosperm xenia (sex) mutants. Barley Genet. Newsl. 8:109-112.
13. Ullrich, S.E., and R.F. Eslick. 1978. Chromosome location evidence for Risø induced high lysine shrunken endosperm mutants of barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 8:114-125.
14. Ullrich, S.E., and R.F. Eslick. 1978. Lysine and protein characterization of spontaneous shrunken endosperm mutants in barley. Crop Sci. 18:809-812.


A.J. Jarvi and R.F. Eslick. 1971. Barley Genet. Newsl. 1:193.


R.F. Eslick and E.A. Hockett. 1976. Barley Genet. Newsl. 6:140.
T. Tsuchiya. 1980. Barley Genet. Newsl. 10:129.
J.D. Franckowiak. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:330.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2018. Barley Genet. Newsl. 48:130-131.