International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks
BGS 716, Intense blue aleurone 1, ibl1
Stock number: BGS 716
Locus name: Intense blue aleurone 1
Locus symbol: ibl1
Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:
Enhancer of blue aleurone = en-Bl (5).
Enhancer of blue aleurone = en-Bl (5).Intense blue aleurone = ibl (2, 3).
Monofactorial recessive (2, 4, 5).
Located in 7HL (5); ibl1.a (en-Bl) is about 30.1 cM from the blx2.b (non-blue aleurone 2) gene (5); ibl1.a is about 29.5 cM from the msg10.ay (male sterile genetic 10) gene (5); the presence of ibl1.a in BW417 and BW 418 is associated with parental SNP markers in 7HL (1); the dark purple coloration of kernels in the hulless accession Nierumuzha from China was associated with QTL in 7HL (7).
The ibl1.a variant was identified based on mature aleurone color. Two new colors, brick red and intense blue, were found in the Abyssinian lines, Ethiopian 637 and Ab 2231, respectively. Aleurone color expression is influenced by the environment in much the same way as that of normal blue, but they are reasonably distinct from normal blue and white aleurones in well grown material (2). The ibl1.a gene intensifies the red anthocyanin pigmentation of the stem base of seedlings and on the culms of maturing plants (4, 6). The leaf sheath anthocyanin content of the ibl.a variant [BW418 (NGB 20651)] having the dominant allele Ant1.a (Rst1.a) at the Ant1 (Anthocyanin-less 1) or HvMpc1 locus as measured by OD530 (anthocyanin content spectrophotometry at 530 nm) was about three times greater than that of Bowman backcross-derived lines with Ant1.a, but lacking ibl1.a (6).
Origin of mutant:
Natural occurrence in Ethiopian 637 (GSHO 2508) (2). present in Ubamer (PI 296470) (5); possibly present in the Chinese landrace Nierumuzha (7).
ibl1.a in Ethiopian accessions Ethiopian 637 (GSHO 2508) and in Ab 2231 (2, 3).
Mutant used for description and seed stocks:
ibl1.a in Ethiopian 637; ibl1.a with blx4.d (blue aleurone 4) and nud1.a (naked caryopsis 1) in BW063 (NGB 20471)/Ethiopian 637 (BW417, NGB20650) produces red aleurone color; ibl1.a with Blx1.a (Blue aleurone 1) and nud1.a (naked caryopsis 1) in BW063 (NGB 20471)/Ethiopian 637 (BW418, NGB 20651) produces deep blue aleurone color.
1. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627
2. Finch, R.A., and G.E. Porter. 1976. A single gene determining two new aleurone colours in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 6:26-27.
3. Finch, R. A., and E. Simpson. 1978. New colours and complementary colour genes in barley. Z. Pflanzenzücht. 81:40-53.
4. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).
5. Kushnak, G.D. 1974. Utilizing linkages of genetic male sterile and aleurone color genes in hybrid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) systems. Ph.D. Thesis. Montana State Univ., Bozeman.
6. Shoeva, O.Y., T.V. Kukoeva, A. Börner, and E.K. Khlestkina. 2015. Barley Ant1 is a homolog of maize C1 and its product is part of the regulatory machinery governing anthocyanin synthesis in the leaf sheath. Plant Breed. 134:400-405.
7. Yao, X., K. Wu, Y. Yao, Y. Bai, J. Ye, and D. Chi. 2018. Construction of a high-density genetic map: genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to map purple seed coat color (Psc) in hulless barley. Hereditas 155: 37.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2015. Barley Genet. Newsl. 45:241.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2016. Barley Genet. Newsl. 46:136.-137.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2018. Barley Genet. Newsl. 48:174-175.