International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 720, Viviparoides-c, viv-c

BGN  43:215
Stock number: BGS 720
Locus name: Viviparoides-c
Locus symbol: viv-c

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Viviparoides-1 = viv-1 (4, 5).


Monofactorial recessive (5).
Location in chromosome 5H (2); viv-c.1 is associated with SNP markers 2_0761 to 2_1239 (positions 43.06 to 107.53 cM) in 5H bins 02 to 06 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW890 (2).


Tillers of the viv-c.1 plants in the original mutant stock often remained vegetative and fail to produce reproductive structures. The apex of the tillers remains vegetative as new phytomers are added, but occasionally a short, malformed spike develops. In these spikes, many spikelets are replaced by plantlets. In the spikes that produce kernels, arrangement of spikelets is irregular (1, 5). In the Bowman backcross-derived line for viv-1.c (BW890), spikes were compact and multiflorous. Compared to Bowman at Leeston, New Zealand, BW890 plants headed four days later and had slightly shorter peduncles and stature. Kernels were about 2/3 normal weight and grain yields were about 1/3 those of Bowman (3). At Aberdeen, Idaho, USA, expression of the vivipariodes phenotype in BW890 plants are much stronger. Grain yields were nearly none to 1/4 those of Bowman and kernels were about 1/2 normal weight. The number of kernels per spike was reduced to 3/4 of normal or less and rachis internodes were 20% shorter (3), In the glasshouse at Lund, Sweden, the spikes of BW890 plants were short, irregular six-rowed with some calcaroides-like hoods and kernels were semi-naked (5).

Origin of mutant:

An ethylene imine induced mutant in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333) (5).

Mutational events:

viv-c.1 (NGB 115360, GSHO 2497) in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333) (5).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

viv-c.1 (NGB 115360, GSHO 2497) in Foma; viv-c.1 in Bowman (PI 483237)*2 (GSHO 2365); viv-c.1 in Bowman*4 (BW890, NGB 22323).


1. Bossinger, G., U. Lundqvist, W. Rohde, and F. Salamini. 1992. Genetics of plant development in barley. p. 989-1017. In L. Munck, K. Kirkegaard, and B. Jensen (eds.). Barley Genetics VI. Proc. Sixth Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Helsingborg, 1991. Munksgaard Int. Publ., Copenhagen.

2. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.

3. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).

4. Gustafsson, Å., A. Hagberg, U. Lundqvist, and G. Persson. 1969. A proposed system of symbols for the collection of barley mutants at Svalöv. Hereditas 62:409-414.

5. Lundqvist, U. (Unpublished).


U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2013. Barley Genet. Newsl. 43:215.