International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 460, Curly 4, cur4

BGN  45:172
Stock number: BGS 460
Locus name: Curly 4
Locus symbol: cur4

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Curly 4 = cu4 (13).
Spiral neck = spn (5,11,12).
Globosum-d = glo-d (6).


Monofactorial recessive (6, 8, 12, 13).
Located in chromosome 2HL (5, 6, 9, 14); glo-d.1006 is close to the Gth1 (Toothed lemma 1) locus based on linkage drag (3); cur4.f is associated with SNP markers 1_0297 to 2_1258 (positions 85.71 to 114.96 cM) in 2H bins 07 to 08 of Bowman backcross-derived line BW223 (1); glo-d.1006 is associated with SNP markers 2_0674 to 2_0528 (positions 85.28 to 118.78 cM) in 2H bins 07 to 08 of Bowman backcross-derived line BW395 (1); cur4.i is associated with SNP markers 1_0216 to 2_0833 (positions 47.48 to 115.90 cM) in 2H bins 04 to 08 of Bowman backcross-derived line BW224 (1), in 2H bin 08.


Diagnostic characteristics for cur4 mutants can be observed from the seedling stage to maturity. Roots are curved compared to straight roots in normal plants (12). Leaf blades tend to coil or bend and have wrinkles at the margins. Culms are bent slightly at the nodes and about 3/4 normal length, peduncles are spiral or kinky, and awns are frequently slightly coiled (6, 12). Compared to Bowman, plants of the Bowman backcross-derived line for cur4.f, BW223, headed 2 to 4 days later and had 2 to 5 more kernels per spike. BW223 plants were 5 to 10% shorter and have slightly shorter peduncles, awns, and rachis internodes. Kernels of BW223 were shorter, 7.4 vs. 9.4 mm, and weighed less, 4.7 vs.5.4 mg. Grain yields of BW223 were 10 to 30% lower than Bowman yields (4). Compared to Bowman, the morphological effects of the glo-d.1006 mutant in the Bowman backcross-derived line BW395 were slightly less than observed with BW223. BW224 plants with cur4.i was morphologically similar to BW223 plants (4). The delayed heading and more kernels per spike of the BW lines for cur4 mutants could be attributed to retention of the late maturity allele at the Eam6 or mat-c (early maturity 6 or praematurum-c) locus in 2HS (4).

Origin of mutant:

An X-ray induced mutant in Asahi 5 (OUJ509) (5, 13).

Mutational events:

cur4.f (Kmut 118, GSHO 1708) in Asahi 5 (OUJ509) (5, 13); glo-d.1006 (1114/66, GSHO 1754) in Donaria (PI 161974) (2, 6); glo-d.13 (glo-d.1009) (NGB 115631), glo-d.14 (NGB115632) in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (7, 8); cur4.i (OUM163, GSHO 1709) in Akashinriki (OUJ659, PI 467400).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

cur4.f (GSHO 1708) in Asahi 5; cur4.f in Bowman (PI 483237)*7 (GSHO 1915, BW223, NGB 22050); glo-d.1006 from Donaria in Bowman*7 (GSHO 1917. BW395, NGB 20633); cur4.i from Akashinriki in Bowman*7 (GSHO 1916, BW224, NGB 22051).


1. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.

2. Franckowiak, J.D. 1992. Allelism tests among selected semidwarf barleys. Barley Genet. Newsl. 21:17-23.

3. Franckowiak, J.D. 1995. Notes on linkage drag in Bowman backcross derived lines of spring barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 24:63-70.

4. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).

5. Furst, E.C. 1983. Primary trisomic analysis of three mutant genes in barley. M.S. Thesis. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins.

6. Häuser, H., and G. Fischbeck. 1979. Genetic analysis of some induced mutants. Barley Genet. Newsl. 9:26-27.

7. Häuser, H., and G. Fischbeck. 1980. Genetic analysis of induced mutations. Barley Genet. Newsl. 10:30-31.

8. Häuser, J., A. Jahoor, and G. Fischbeck. 1988. Localization of induced mutants for globe shaped grains. Barley Genet. Newsl. 18:54-58.

9. Hwang, J.J., and T. Tsuchiya. 1988. Primary trisomic analysis of the gene cu4 for curly 4 (spiral) mutant in KM118. Barley Genet. Newsl. 18:18-20.

10. Konishi, T. (Personal communications).

11. Tsuchiya, T. 1974. Further results of allelism testing in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 4:82-85.

12. Tsuchiya, T. 1974. Root character of curly mutants in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 4:88-90.

13. Tsuchiya, T. 1984. Inheritance of cu4 for curly 4 (spiral neck) mutant in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 14:51-52.

14. Wang, S., and T. Tsuchiya. 1990. Further investigation on mutant gene cu4 (spiral) in barley by means of primary trisomic analysis. Barley Genet. Newsl.19:60.


T. Tsuchiya. 1984. Barley Genet. Newsl. 14:97.


J.D. Franckowiak and U. Lundqvist. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:406.
J.D. Franckowiak and U. Lundqvist. 2015. Barley Genet. Newsl. 45:172-173.