International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 30, Erectoides-m, ert-m

BGN  46:47
Stock number: BGS 30
Locus name: Erectoides-m
Locus symbol: ert-m

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Erectoides-34 = ert-34 (3, 4).


Monofactorial recessive (3, 4, 10).
Located in chromosome 7HS (6, 7, 8, 10); ert-m.34 is about 14.7 cM distal from the cer-f (eceriferum-f) locus (11, 12, 13); ert-m.34 is near the ant1 (anthocyanin-less 1) locus (10); ert-m.34 is associated with SNP markers 2_1326 to 2_1270 (positions 65.26 to 93.97 cM) in 7H bins 05 to 06 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW316 (1); ert-m.34 mapped to an 4.7 cM interval flanked by SNP markers 3_0576 and 1_0721 (15).


Spikes have a compact appearance caused by a reduction in rachis internode length, with rachis internode length values from 2.0 to 2.8 mm. However, the rachis internodes within each spike are often variable in length, and the spike appears irregular similar to those of opposite spikelet mutants. Plants with an allele at the ert-m locus are often 10 to 15 cm shorter than parental cultivars, and some tillers of most plants have one or more extremely shortened upper culm internodes (10). Some tillers of most plants have one or more extremely shortened and twisted upper culm internodes (5, 10, 15). Leaf blades show a scirpoid-like phenotype (5, 15). Alleles at the ert-m locus respond positively to GA3 treatments designed to increase rachis internode length (14). Some alleles at the ert-m locus lack normal anthocyanin pigmentation. The anthocyanin deficiency can not be separated from the ert-m allele and is apparently an allele at the ant1 locus (9, 10). Plants of the Bowman backcross-derived line for ert-m.34, BW316, were slightly shorter than Bowman with an average rachis internode length of 3.8 vs. 4.5 mm. Kernels of BW316 varied in size from equal to 20% larger than those of Bowman, but test weight was 10% lower. Grain yields of BW316 averaged about 2/3 those of Bowman (2). ). The ert-m mutants have a spike that varies from irregular two-rowed with non-twisted rachis internodes to regular cross-rowed with twisted alternating rachis internodes. Because elongation of the upper culm internodes is often variable, the emerging spike is frequently trapped in the leaf sheath, which often results in a twisted culm and peduncle (15). Sequencing of HvERECTA in barley ert-m mutants identified severe DNA changes in 15 mutants, including full gene deletions in ert-m.40 and ert-m.64. Both deletions additionally cause anthocyanin deficiency associated with the closely linked anthocyanin-less 1 (ant1) locus (15).

Origin of mutant:

A thermal neutron induced mutant in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (4, 10).

Mutational events:

ert-m.34 (NGB 112635, GSHO 487), -m.35 (NGB 112636), -m.40 (NGB 112640) with a ant1 mutant, -m.41 (NGB 112641), -m.42 (NGB 112642), -m.54 (NGB 112653), -m.64 (NGB 112663) with a ant1 mutant in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (4); ert-m.87 (NGB 112686) with a ant1 mutant, -m.107 (NGB 112706), -m.115 (NGB 112714), -m.130 (NGB 112729), -m.144 (NGB 112743), -m.168 (NGB 112768), -m.169 (NGB 112769) in Bonus, -m.314 (NGB 112829) in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333) (10); ert-m.328 (NGB 112843) in Foma (5); ert-m.330 (NGB 112845), -m.363 (NGB 112879), -m.384 (NGB 112899), -m.426 (NGB 112942) in Foma (10). Mutants ert-m.41 (NGB 112641), ert-m.314 (NGB 112829), ert-m.328 (NGB 112843), and ert-m.384 (NGB 112899) were demonstrated to be non-allelic to ert-m.40 (NGB 112640) (15).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

ert-m.34 (NGB 112635, GSHO 487) in Bonus; ert-m.34 in Bowman (PI 483237)*8 (GSHO 1843, BW316, NGB 22111).


1. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.
2. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).
3. Hagberg, A. 1958. Cytogenetik einiger Gerstenmutanten. Züchter 28:32-36.
4. Hagberg, A., Å. Gustafsson, and L. Ehrenberg. 1958. Sparsely contra densely ionizing radiations and the origin of erectoid mutants in barley. Hereditas 44:523-530.
5. Lundqvist, U. (Unpublished).
6. Persson, G. 1969. An attempt to find suitable genetic markers for the dense ear loci in barley I. Hereditas 62:25-96.
7. Persson, G. 1969. An attempt to find suitable genetic markers for the dense ear loci in barley II. Hereditas 63:1-28.
8. Persson, G., and A. Hagberg. 1962. Linkage studies with the erectoides loci. Barley Newsl. 5:46-47.
9. Persson, G., and A. Hagberg. 1964. Linkage data from studies on mutations induced in Bonus barley. Barley Newsl. 7:39-41.
10. Persson, G., and A. Hagberg. 1969. Induced variation in a quantitative character in barley. Morphology and cytogenetics of erectoides mutants. Hereditas 61:115-178.
11. Søgaard, B. 1971. Linkage studies on eceriferum mutants in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 1:41-47.
12. Søgaard, B. 1974. The localization of eceriferum loci in barley. III. Three point tests of genes on chromosome 1 in barley. Hereditas 76:41-48.
13. Søgaard, B. 1977. The localization of eceriferum loci in barley. V. Three point tests of genes on chromosome 1 and 3. Carlsberg Res. Commun. 42:67-75.
14. Stoy, V., and A. Hagberg. 1967. Effects of growth regulators on ear density mutants in barley. Hereditas 58:359-384.
15. Zakhrabekova, S., C. Dockter, K. Ahmann, I. Braumann, S.P. Gough, T. Wendt, U. Lundqvist, M. Mascher, N. Stein, and M. Hansson. 2015. Genetic linkage facilitates cloning of Ert-m regulating plant architecture in barley and identified a strong candidate of Ant1 involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Plant Mol. Biol. 88:609-626.


U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:78-79.


U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2014. Barley Genet. Newsl. 44:57-58.
U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2016. Barley Genet. Newsl. 46:47-48.