International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 76, Red lemma and pericarp 2, Pre2

BGN  48:77 Export to PDF
Stock number: BGS 76
Locus name: Red lemma and pericarp 2
Locus symbol: Pre2

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Purple chaff color = P (1, 7).
Purple chaff color = P1 (12).
Purple pericarp = P (3, 13, 17).
Purple lemma = P (2).
Red pericarp = R (2).
Red pericarp 2 = Re2 (9, 14, 18).


Purple or reddish pigmentation of the lemma and pericarp is controlled by one dominant gene (1, 3). Two dominant complementary genes (Pre1 and Pre2) control purple or red pigmentation of the lemma, palea, and pericarp (2, 12, 19, 21). In some Chinese landraces and Bowman backcross-derived line BW648 (NGB 22213), the second gene required for expression of purple lemma and pericarp is probably a dominant allele at the Anthocyanin-less 1 (Ant1) locus (5, 15, 20).
Located in chromosome 2HL (2); Pre2.a is about 17.1 cM distal from the vrs1 (six-rowed spike 1) locus (2, 3, 4, 9, 12, 13, 18); Pre2.a is over 11.2 cM proximal from the ant2 (anthocyanin-less 2) locus (9, 10); Pre2.a is associated with SNP markers 1_0214 to 1_0876 (positions 150.96 to 161.08 cM) in 2H bins 10 to 11 of Bowman backcross-derived line BW648 (5); line BW648 also retained a donor parent segment in chromosome 7H overlapping the Ant1 locus (5, 15); Pre2.a mapped in 2HL between the SSR markers Bmag125 and GBMS244 and was about 5.1 cM distal from the vrs1 locus (11), in 2H bin 10 at about 680 Mb.


Purple or red coloration of the hull (chaff) and pericarp develops during the soft dough stage of grain fill, and fades as the grain matures. Anthocyanin pigments in an acid cell solution produce the red to violet color observed in the pericarp and lemma (2). Bowman and the Bowman backcross-derived line for Pre2.a, BW648, were similar for all agronomic and morphological traits expect kernel color (6). The Pre2.b gene is up-regulated in the purple-grained line (BW648, NGB 22213) with coordinately co-expressed flavonoid biosynthesis structural genes (Chs, Chi, F3h, Dfr, and Ans) (16). Compared to Bowman, the anthocyanin content of BW648 showed a value over nine times higher (16). A similar increase was observed in other studies (21).

Origin of mutant:

Natural occurrence in a few cultivars and some Hordeum vulgare subsp spontaneum accessions (2, 19, 20).

Mutational events:

Pre2.a in Buckley 3277 (NSL 32606, GSHO 234) (2).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

Pre2.a in Buckley 3277 (NSL 32606, GSHO 234); Pre2.b from R.I. Wolfe's Multiple Dominant Marker Stock (GSHO 1565) in Bowman (PI 483237, NGB 22812)*9 (GSHO 1926, BW648, NGB 22213).


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16. Shoeva, O.Y., H.-P. Mock, T.V. Kukoeva, A. Börner, and E.K. Khlestkina. 2016. Regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes in purple and black grains of Hordeum vulgare. PloS ONE 11(10): e0163e782.
17. Ubisch, G. von. 1919. Beitrag zu einer Faktorenanalyse von Gerste. II. Z. Indukt. Abstammungs. Vererbungsl. 20:65-117.
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19. Woodward, R.W., and J.W. Thieret. 1953. A genetic study of complementary genes for purple lemma, palea and pericarp in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Agron. J. 45:182-185.
20. Yao, X., K. Wu, Y. Yao, Y. Bai, J. Ye, and D. Chi. 2018. Construction of a high-density genetic map: genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to map purple seed coat color (Psc) in hulless barley. Hereditas 155:37.
21. Zhang, X.-W., Q.-T. Jiang, Y.-M. Wei, and C. Liu. 2017. Inheritance analysis and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling individual anthocyanin compounds in purple barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains. PLoS ONE 12(8): e0183704.


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J.D. Franckowiak. 2014. Barley Genet. Newsl. 44:70-71.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2016. Barley Genet. Newsl. 46:53-54.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2018. Barley Genet. Newsl. 48:77-79.