International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 562, Erectoides-k, ert-k

BGN  46:121
Stock number: BGS 562
Locus name: Erectoides-k
Locus symbol: ert-k

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Erectoides-32 = ert-32 (6).


Monofactorial recessive (6).
Located in chromosome 6H (3, 5, 10), ert-k.32 is associated with SNP markers 1_0061 to 1_0040 (positions 70.15 to 107.26 cM) in 6H bins 05 to 07 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW314 (2); ert-k.32 is in a 15.7-cM interval between markers 2_0291 (50.4 cM) and 1_0040 (66.1 cM) (8).


Spikes of ert-k mutants are semicompact with rachis internode length values varying from 2.4 to 2.8 mm compared to 3.1 for Bonus (10). Culm length was 3/4 to 5/6 of normal (10). The improved straw strength of this mutant has potential agronomic value as indicated by the release of the ert-k.32 stock as the cultivar Pallas (1, 7). In the Bowman backcross-derived line for ert-k.32, BW314, plants were about 15% shorter, kernels were 10 to 15% lighter, and rachis internodes were shorter, 3.5 vs. 4.5 mm, than those of Bowman (4). The grain yields of BW314 and Bowman were similar (4). In comparison with Bowman as grown under greenhouse conditions, BW314 plants had shorter culms (78.4 ± 7.7 cm vs. 63.7 ± 4.6 cm) and denser spikes (7.3 ± 3.4 cm vs. 6.1 ± 2.5 cm) (8), Compared to Bowman, the 1000-kernel weight of BW314 was reduced by approximately 9.5% (46.2 ± 2.3 g and 41.9 ± 3.2 g) (8). The ert-k region of 6H was associated with a plant height QTL, QTL16_PHT, in a genome-wide association mapping study of spring barley accessions (11).

Origin of mutant:

An X-ray induced mutant in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (6).

Mutational events:

ert-k.32 (NGB 112633, GSHO 485) in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (6); ert-k.76 (NGB 112675) in Bonus (7); ert-k.93 (NGB 112692) in Bonus, -k.309 (NGB 112825) in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333) (12); ert-k.302 (NGB 112819), -k.435 (NGB 112951), -k.459 (NGB 112974), -k.477 (NGB 112993) in Foma (9).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

ert-k.32 (NGB 112633, GSHO 485) in Bonus; ert-k.32 in Bowman (PI 483237)*6 (GSHO 2253, BW314, NGB 20589).


1. Borg, G., K. Fröier, and Å. Gustafsson. 1958. Pallas barley, a variety produced by ionizing radiation: its significance for plant breeding and evolution. p. 1-17. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Peaceful Uses Atomic Energy Geneva, 1958, (A/CONF. 15/P/2468).

2. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.

3. Forster, B.J. 2001. Mutation genetics of salt tolerance in barley: An assessment of Golden Promise and other semi-dwarf mutants. Euphytica 120:317-328.

4. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).

5. Gustafsson, A., A. Hagberg, G. Persson, and K. Wiklund, 1971.Induced mutations and barley improvement. Theor. Appl. Genet. 41:239-248.

6. Hagberg, A., Å. Gustafsson, and L. Ehrenberg. 1958. Sparsely contra densely ionizing radiations and the origin of erectoid mutants in barley. Hereditas 44:523530.

7. Hagberg, A., G. Persson, and A. Wiberg. 1963. Induced mutations in the improvement of self-pollinated crops. p. 105-124. In E. Åkerberg and A. Hagberg (eds.) Recent Plant Breeding Research. Svalöf 1946-1961. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.

8. Kristensen, P.S., C. Dockter, U. Lundqvist, Q. Lu, P.L. Gregersen, H.T. Christensen, and M. Hansson. 2016. Genetic mapping of the barley lodging resistance locus Erectoides-k. Plant Breed. 135:420-428.

9. Lundqvist, U. (Unpublished).

10. Nilan, R.A. 1964. The Cytology and Genetics of Barley, 1951-1962. Monographic Supplement No. 3 Research Studies. Washington State University Press. Note: the chromosome association of ert-k.32 is based on summarized information from A. Hagberg.

11. Pasam, R.K., R. Sharma, M. Malosetti, F.A. van Eeuwijk, G. Haseneyer, B. Kilian, and A. Graner. 2012. Genome-wide association studies for agronomical traits in a world wide spring barley collection. BMC Plant Biol. 12:1-22.

12. Persson, G., and A. Hagberg. 1969. Induced variation in a quantitative character in barley. Morphology and cytogenetics of erectoides mutants. Hereditas 61:115-178.


U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:488.


U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2013. Barley Genet. Newsl. 43:156-157.
U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2016. Barley Genet. Newsl. 46:121-122.