International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 1, Brachytic 1, brh1

BGN  47:50
Stock number: BGS 1
Locus name: Brachytic 1
Locus symbol: brh1

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Brachytic = br (15, 17).
Breviaristatum-i = ari-i (7, 12).
Breviaristatum-28 = ari-28 (14).
Dwarf x = dx1 (8).


Monofactorial recessive (15,17).
Located in chromosome 7HS (5); brh1.a is about 9.3 cM distal from the fch12 (chlorina seedling 12) locus (17); mapped 0.8 cM distal from RFLP marker BCD129 and cosegregated with marker MWG2074B (13); brh1.a is about 5.0 cM from AFLP marker E4134-8 in subgroup 1 of the Proctor/Nudinka map (16); brh1.a is about 13.6 cM proximal from SSR marker HVM04 in 7H bin 02 (3); brh1.a is associated with SNP markers 2_1419 to 2_0245 (positions 0.00 to 13.19 cM) in 7H bin 01 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW074 (4); brh1.x is associated with SNP markers 1_0949 to 1_1495 (positions 0.00 to 8.77 cM) in 7H bin 01 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW079 (44); brh1.t is associated with SNP markers 1_1495 to 1_0025 (positions 8.77 to 26.00 cM) in 7H bins 01 to 02 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW078 (3); an unnamed brh1 mutant is associated with SNP markers 1_0851 to 2_0485 (positions 17.32 to 121.90 cM) in 7H bins 02 to 07 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW872 (4); the genomic position of the Brh1 locus at 12.74 cM in 7HS (2), in 1H bin 01 near the border with 1H bin 02.


Plants have short leaves, culms, spikes, awns, and kernels. The seedling leaf is about 2/3 normal length. A similar reduction in the size of other organs is observed, but the awns were less than 1/2 normal length (7). The mutant phenotype was easy to classify at all stages of growth. The approximately 20% reduction in kernel weight was caused primarily by a reduction in kernel length, 7.8 vs. 9.6 mm. Grain yields of the Bowman backcross-derived lines for brh1 mutants were about 2/3 normal and lodging was greatly reduced (2). Börner (1) reported that ari-i.38 seedlings are sensitive to gibberellic acid. Powers (12) stated that the assigned gene symbol for this mutant is br and that L.J. Stadler selected this symbol. . The ari-m (breviaristatum-m) mutants occur in the Brh1 locus (2). The brh1 mutants are deficient in the Gα subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein, which is an important regulator of culm length in barley (2, 9). The brh1.a mutant did not affect malt quality negatively (2).

Origin of mutant:

A spontaneous mutant in Himalaya (CIho 1312) (15, 17)).

Mutational events:

brh1.a (GSHO 25) in Himalaya (CIho 1312) (20); brh1.c (GSHO 229) in Moravian (PI 539135) (18); but SNP marker patterns this mutant originated from Himalaya and is identical to the brh1.a mutant (2); ari-i.38 (NGB 115888, GSHO 1657) in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (12, 19); brh1.e (GSHO 1690) in Aramir (PI 467786) (19); brh1.f (dx1, GSHO 1422) in Domen (NGB 2104, CIho 9562) (8); brh1.t (OUM136, GSHO 1691) in Akashinriki (PI 467400, OUJ659); brh1.x (7125, GSHO 1692) in Volla (PI 280423); brh1.z (Hja80001) in Aapo PI 467771); brh1.aa (Hja80051) in a Hja80001 cross (6, 10); (FN53, GSHO 3646) in Steptoe (CIho 15229) (6, 11); an unnamed variant of brh1 in L50-200 (Alb Acc 67A, GSHO 1217) associated with expression of the subnodal bract 1 (snb1.a) gene (20). The ari-m (breviaristatum-m) mutants were demonstrated to be alleles at the brh1 locus (2); ari-m.12 (NGB 115858, GSHO 1661), -m.28 (NGB 115876) in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763), -m.141 (NGB 115951), -m.177 (NGB 115987) in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333), -m.251 (NGB 116059) in Kristina (NGB14661, NGB 1500) (12); ari-m.269 (NGB 116081) in Kristina (12, 14).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

brh1.a in Himalaya (GSHO 25); ari-i.38 (NGB 115888, GSHO 1657) in Bonus, brh1.a in Bowman (PI 483237)*7 (GSHO 1820, BW074, NGB 20481); ari-i.38 in Bowman*6 (GSHO 1821, BW047, NGB 20455); brh1.e in Bowman*7 (GSHO 1822, BW077, NGB 20484); brh1.t in Bowman*7 (GSHO 1823, BW078, NGB 20485); brh1.x in Bowman*7 (GSHO 1824, BW079, NGB 20486); brh1.z in Bowman*7 (GSHO 2179, BW080, NGB 20487); brh1.aa in Bowman*6 (GSHO 1668, BW075, NGB 20485); in Bowman*4 (BW076, NGB 20483); an unnamed brh1 allele in Bowman*2 (BW872, NGB 22306). ); ari-m.28 (GSHO 1661, NGB 115876) in Bonus; ari-m.28 in Bowman (PI 483237)*6 (GSHO 2161); ari-m.28 in Bowman*8 (BW051, NGB 20459).


1. Börner, A. 1996. GA response in semidwarf barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 25:24-26.
2. Braumann. I., C. Dockter, S. Beier, A. Himmelbach, F. Lok, U. Lundqvist, B. Skadhauge, N. Stein, S. Zakhrabekova, R. Zhou, and M. Hansson. 2018. Mutations in the gene of the Gα subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein are the cause for the brachytic1 semi-dwarf phenotype in barley and applicable for practical breeding. Hereditas 155:10 -
3. Dahleen, L.S., L.J. Vander Wal, and J.D. Franckowiak. 2005. Characterization and molecular mapping of genes determining semidwarfism in barley. J. Hered. 96:654-662.
4. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.
5. Fedak, G., T. Tsuchiya, and S.B. Helgason. 1972. Use of monotelotrisomics for linkage mapping in barley. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 14:949-957.
6. Franckowiak, J.D. 1995. The brachytic class of semidwarf mutants in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 24:56-59.
7. Gustafsson, Å., A. Hagberg, U. Lundqvist, and G. Persson. 1969. A proposed system of symbols for the collection of barley mutants at Svalöv. Hereditas 62:409-414.
8. Holm, E., and K. Aastveit. 1966. Induction and effects of the brachytic allele in barley. Adv. Front Plant Sci. 17:81-94.
9. Ito, A., A. Yasuda, K. Yamaoka, M. Ueda, A. Nakayama, S. Takatsuto,and I. Honda. 2017. Brachytic 1 of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) encodes the α subunit of heterotrimeric G protein. J. Plant Physiol. 213:209-215.
10. Kivi, E. 1986. (Personal communications).
11. Kleinhofs, A. (Unpublished).
12. Kucera, J., U. Lundqvist, and Å. Gustafsson. 1975. Inheritance of breviaristatum mutants in barley. Hereditas 80:263-278.
13 Li , M., D. Kudrna, and A. Kleinhofs. 2001. Fine mapping of a semi-dwarf gene brachytic 1 in barley. p. Barley Genet. Newsl. 31:14-17.
14. Lundqvist, U. (Unpublished).
15. Powers, L. 1936. The nature of the interactions of genes affecting four quantitative characters in a cross between Hordeum deficiens and vulgare. Genetics 21:398-420.
16. Pozzi, C., D. di Pietro, G. Halas, C. Roig, and F. Salamini. 2003. Integration of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) molecular linkage map with the position of genetic loci hosting 29 developmental mutants. Heredity 90:390-396.
17. Swenson, S.P. 1940. Genetic and cytological studies on a brachytic mutant in barley. J. Agric. Res. 60:687-713.
18. Szarejko, I., and M. Maluszynski. 1984. New brachytic mutant of spring barley variety Aramir. Barley Genet. Newsl. 14:33-35.
19. Tsuchiya, T. 1974. Allelic relationships of genes for short-awned mutants in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 4:80-81.
20. Walker, G.W.R., J. Dietrich, R. Miller, and K.J. Kasha. 1963. Recent barley mutants and their linkages II. Genetic data for further mutants. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 5:200-219.


T. Tsuchiya and T.E. Haus. 1971. Barley Genet. Newsl. 1:104.


T. Tsuchiya. 1980. Barley Genet. Newsl. 10:100.
J.D. Franckowiak. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:44.
J.D. Franckowiak and L.S. Dahleen. 2007. Barley Genet. Newsl. 37:188-189.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2011. Barley Genet. Newsl. 41:58-59.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2013. Barley Genet. Newsl. 43:48-49.
J.D. Franckowiak and U. Lundqvist. 2017. Barley Genet. Newsl. 47:50-52.