International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks
BGS 173, Non-blue aleurone xenia 3, blx3
Stock number: BGS 173
Locus name: Non-blue aleurone xenia 3
Locus symbol: blx3
Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:
Non-blue aleurone 3 = bl3 (1).
Complementary factors for blue vs white aleurone = Bly and bly (7).
Basic helix-loop-helix domain (bHLH) -coding gene = HvMyc2 (6).
Monofactorial recessive when complementary dominant alleles are present at the Blx1, Blx2, Blx4, and Blx5 loci (1, 2).
Located in chromosome 4HL (1, 2); blx3.c is close to the blx1 (non-blue aleurone xenia 1) locus (1, 2, 7); blx3.c is over 25.3 cM distal from the Kap1 (Hooded lemma 1) locus (1,5); Blx3 (HvMyc2) mapped near SSR marker Bmac186 (6).
Blue aleurone color is due to anthocyanin pigments (4) which occur as lumps inside many aleurone granules in some or all aleurone cells (1). Variation in blue color expression from dark blue to an off-white is caused by environmental factors and modifying genes (1, 2). Aleurone color is best observed in well filled grain that is magnified to show individual aleurone cells, after more superficial tissues have been peeled off (3). The Blx3 (HvMyc2) gene is active only in the aleurone layer and shares 70.8% identity with Anthocyanin-less 2 (HvAnt2) (6).
Origin of mutant:
Natural occurrence in a line selected from Composite Cross V (CIho 6620) (7).
blx3.c in line Blx GSHO 2506) selected from Composite Cross V CIho 6620) (1).
Mutant used for description and seed stocks:
blx3.c in line Blx (GSHO 2506) selected from Composite Cross V; blx3.c in BW063 (NGB 20471)/Blx (BW064, NGB 20472).
1. Finch, R. A., and E. Simpson. 1978. New colours and complementary colour genes in barley. Z. Pflanzenzücht. 81:40-53.
2. Kushnak, G.D. 1974. Utilizing linkages of genetic male sterile and aleurone color genes in hybrid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) systems. Ph.D. Thesis. Montana State Univ., Bozeman.
3. Mullick, D.B., and V.C. Brink. 1970. A method for exposing aleurone tissue of barley for color classification. Can. J. Plant Sci. 50:551-558.
4. Mullick, D.B., D.G. Faris, V.C. Brink, and R.M. Acheson. 1958. Anthocyanins and anthocyanidins of the barley pericarp and aleurone tissues. Can. J. Plant Sci. 38:445-456.
5. Shim, J.W., and S.J. Suh. 1987. Linkage relationship of blue aleurone genes (Bl's) in barley. p. 213-217. In S. Yasuda and T. Konishi (eds.) Barley Genetics V. Proc. Fifth Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Okayama. 1986. Sanyo Press Co., Okayama.
6. Strygina, K.V., A. Börner, and E.K. Khlestkina. 2017. Identification and characterization of regulatory network components for anthocyanin synthesis in barley aleurone. BMC Plant Biol. 2017; 17(1):184.
7. Wiebe, G.A. 1972. Blue aleurone caused by complementary genes in very close translinkage. Barley Genet Newsl. 2:109.
R.A. Finch. 1978. Barley Genet. Newsl. 8:165.
J.D. Franckowiak and R.A. Finch. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:198.
J.D. Franckowiak . 2018.Barley Genet. Newsl. 48:93-94.