International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks
BGS 44, Brachytic 16, brh16
Stock number: BGS 44
Locus name: Brachytic 16
Locus symbol: brh16
Revised locus symbol:
The brh16.v mutant is one of the allele at the ari-o.40 (Breviaristatum-o) locus (2). Other alleles at previously named loci include ert-u.56 (Erectoides-u, BGS 92), ert-zd.159 (Erectoides-zd, BGS 93), and brh14.q (Brachytic 14, BGS 148) (1). See BGS 556 for more information on the alleles at the ari-o locus.
Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:
Brachytic-v = brh.v (4).
Monofactorial recessive (4, 5).
Located in chromosome 7HL (1, 2); brh16.v is; approximately 7.4 cM proximal from SSR marker Bmag0135 in 7H bin 13 (1). no heterogeneous SNP markers were retained in the Bowman backcross-derived line for brh16.v, BW087 (3); brh16.v is an allele at the HvDIM locus located in chromosome 7H at position 138.2 cm (2) in the barley genome map (7).
Plants are less than 2/3 of normal height and awns are about 3/4 of normal length in the Bowman backcross-derived line. The peduncle is about 2/3 normal length. The rachis internodes are slightly shorter than normal. The tip of the spike has a fascinated appearance because spikelets are very close together (1, 6). Since kernels per spikes and kernel size were not reduced, much of the yield loss was probably associated with reduced tillering (1, 6). The original introduction (HE 2816) contained two dwarf mutants, but only brh16.v gene was isolated in the Bowman backcross-derived line (5, 8). Compared to Bowman, plants of the Bowman backcross-derived line for brh16.v, BW087, were 30 to 40% shorter and had short peduncles, 17 vs. 31 cm. Awns and rachis internodes were slightly shorter. Leaf blades were shorter and slightly narrower. Kernels of BW087 were slightly shorter and varied in weight from equal to 10% lighter than those of Bowman. Grain yields of BW087 were about 1/4 those of Bowman (1, 5). As with other mutants at the ari-o locus, brh16.v shows a brassinosteroid-deficient phenotype that includes a short culm, about 70% of normal, caused largely by an extreme shortening of the second culm internode (2). Other common traits include shorter rachis internodes, short awns, acute leaf angles, slightly undulating leaf margins, and a slightly elongated basal rachis internode (2). The six Bowman backcross-derived lines with a mutation at the ari-o or HvDIM locus, ari-o.40, brh14.af, brh14.q, brh16.v, ert-u.56, and ert-zd.159, have retained a small, common genetic donor parent interval (2). The sequence of HvDIM, encoding the barley Δ5-sterol-Δ24-reductase DIMINUTO, corresponds directly to single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker 1_0547 located in the telomere on the long arm of chromosome 7H (2).
Origin of mutant:
Probably an ethyl methanesulphonate induced mutant in Korál (PI 467778) (8).
brh16.v in HE 2816 (DWS1176, GSHO 1686) from a cross between two semidwarf mutants (6, 8).
Mutant used for description and seed stocks:
brh16.v in HE 2816/Bowman (GSHO 1686); brh16.v in Bowman (PI 483237)*7 (GSHO 2177, BW087, NGB 20494).
1. Dahleen, L.S., L.J. Vander Wal, and J.D. Franckowiak. 2005. Characterization and molecular mapping of genes determining semidwarfism in barley. J. Hered. 96:654-662.
2. Dockter, C., D. Gruszka, I, Braumann, A. Druka, I. Druka, J. Franckowiak, S.P. Gough, A. Janeczko, M. Kurowska, J. Lundqvist, U. Lundqvist, M. Marzec, I. Matyszczak, A.H. Müller, J. Oklestkova, B. Schulz, S, Zakhrabekova, and M. Hansson. 2014. Induced variations in brassinosteroid genes define barley height and sturdiness, and expand the green revolution genetic toolkit. Plant Physiol. 166:1912-1927.
3. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendrarnin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.
4. Franckowiak, J.D. 1995. The brachytic class of semidwarf mutants in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 24:56-59.
5. Franckowiak, J.D. (unpublished<).
6. Franckowiak, J.D., and A. Pecio. 1992. Coordinator’s report: semidwarf genes. A listing of genetic stocks. Barley Genet. Newsl. 21:116-127.
7. The International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium. 2012. A physical, genetic and functional sequence assembly of the barley genome. Nature 491:711-716.
8. Váša, M. 1986. (Personal communications).
J.D. Franckowiak and L.S. Dahleen. 2007. Barley Genet. Newsl. 37:204.
U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2015. Barley Genet. Newsl. 45:89-90.