International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 61, Triple awned lemma 1, trp1

BGN  41:82
Stock number: BGS 61
Locus name: Triple awned lemma 1
Locus symbol: trp1

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Triple-bearded variation (5).
Triple awned lemma = tr (4).


Monofactorial recessive (4).
Located in chromosome 4HL (2); trp1.a is associated with SNP markers 2_1397 to 1_0467 (positions 47.8 to 105.27 cM) in 4H bins 05 to 07 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW881 (2), likely in 4H bin 07. Previously located in chromosome 2HL (4, 7), over 35.5 cM distal from the wst7 (white streak 7) locus (1), but the wst7 locus is in a subterminal position in 2HL (2); near AFLP marker E3644-13 in subgroups 22 and 23 of the Proctor/Nudinka map (6).


Mutants may have three awns on the lemma instead of one, but expression is variable (5). The awn or hood extending from the lemma of the central spikelet forks to form one normal central appendage and one or two shorter lateral ones (4). Expression of triple awn trait in the Bowman backcross-derived line BW881 is reduced to an occasional branch in the basal part of the awn. However, when plants are grown under heat stress a stronger expression of the trp1 trait was observed. Other morphological deviations from Bowman were not observed (3). The conflict in chromosome map positions suggests that strong expression of the triple awn phenotype may involve two loci (3).

Origin of mutant:

A spontaneous mutant in an unknown cultivar (5), possibly of natural occurrence in six-rowed cultivars originating from East Asia (3).

Mutational events:

trp1.a in Triple-awn Lemma (CIho 6630, GSHO 210) (5).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

trp1.a in CIho 6630 (GSHO 210); trp1.a from CIho 6880 (Ahang/Twisted Flag//Triple-awn Lemma) in Bowman (PI 483237)*7 (GSHO 1936, BW881, NGB 22315).


1. Doney, D.L. 1961. An inheritance and linkage study of barley with special emphasis on purple pigmentation of the auricle. M.S. Thesis. Utah State Univ., Logan.
2. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.
3. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).
4. Immer, F.R., and M.T. Henderson. 1943. Linkage studies in barley. Genetics 28:419-440.
5. Martini, M.L., and H.V. Harlan. 1942. Barley freaks. J. Hered. 33:338-343.
6. Pozzi, C., D. di Pietro, G. Halas, C. Roig, and F. Salamini. 2003. Integration of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) molecular linkage map with the position of genetic loci hosting 29 developmental mutants. Heredity 90:390-396.
7. Tsuchiya, T., and R.J. Singh. 1973. Further information on telotrisomic analysis in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 3:75-79.


T. Tsuchiya and T.E. Haus. 1971. Barley Genet. Newsl. 1:121.


J.D. Franckowiak. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:97.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2011. Barley Genet. Newsl. 41:82-83.