International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 60, Liguleless 1, lig1

BGN  45:93
Stock number: BGS 60
Locus name: Liguleless 1
Locus symbol: lig1

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Ligule and auricle less = al (9).
Liguleless = li (8).
Exauriculum = aur-a (1).


Monofactorial recessive (9).
Located in chromosome 2HL (6, 9, 10); is about 25.1 cM distal from the mtt4 (mottled leaf 4) locus (2); is near AFLP marker E3633-1 in subgroup 21 of the Proctor/Nudinka map (7); is associated with SNP markers 1_0383 to 2_0994 (positions 207.22 to 233.44 cM) in 2H bins 13 to 14 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW483 (1); lig1.2 is associated with SNP markers 1_0446 to 2_0994 (positions 199.54 to 233.44 cM) in 2H bins 12 to 14 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW482 (1), likely in 2H bin 13.


The ligule and auricle of all leaves are absent, and the leaf blades are erect along the stem. Liguleless plants can be identified visually at all stages of growth (9). Reverse mutation of some mutants is possible (4). The fine structure analysis of the lig1 locus conducted by Konishi (5) showed that some mutants can recombine. The Bowman backcross-derived lines with the lig1 gene, BW482 and 483, are similar in maturity, agronomic traits, and yield to Bowman (2).

Origin of mutant:

A spontaneous mutant in an unknown cultivar, Muyoji (liguleless) (OUL007) (8).

Mutational events: as Muyoji (OUL007, GSHO 6) (9); in Koyo (PI 190819), lig1.a1 (OUM001), lig1.a2 in Akashinriki (PI 467400, OUJ659); lig1.c1, lig1.c2, lig1.c3, lig1.c4 in Chikurin Ibaraki 1 (OUJ030, CIho 7370) (5); aur-a.1 (lig1.b1) (NGB 114359), aur-a.2 (lig1.b2) (NGB 114360), aur-a.7 (lig1.b7) (NGB 114365), aur-a.8 (lig1.b8) (NGB 114366), aur-a.9 (lig1.b9) (NGB 114367) in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763), aur-a.3 (lig1.b3) (NGB 114361), aur-a.4 (lig1.b4) (NGB 114362), aur-a.5 (lig1.b5) (NGB 114363), aur-a.6 (lig1.b6) (NGB 114364), aur-a.10 (lig1.b10) (NGB 114368) in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333) (5); aur-a.11 (NGB 114369), aur-a.12 (NGB 114371) in Kristina (NGB 14661, NGB 1500), aur-a.13 (NGB 114372), aur-a.14 (NGB 114373) in Bonus, aur-a.15 (NGB 119377) in Golf (NGB 1520, PI 488529) (6); lig1.2 in Bonus from the stock eli-a.2 (eligulum-a.2) (NGB 115389) as the second mutant (1, 2).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks: (GSHO 6) as Muyoji; in Bowman (PI 483237)*8 (GSHO 1930, BW483, NGB 20711); lig1.2 from a Bonus mutant (NGB 115389) in Bowman*5 (BW482, NGB 20710).


1. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2010. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.
2. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).
3. Gustafsson, Å., A. Hagberg, U. Lundqvist, and G. Persson. 1969. A proposed system of symbols for the collection of barley mutants at Svalöv. Hereditas 62:409-414.
4. Hayashi, J., T. Konishi, I. Moriya, and R. Takahashi. 1984. Inheritance and linkage studies in barley. VI. Ten mutant genes located on chromosomes 1 to 7, except 3. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol., Okayama Univ. 18:227-250.
5. Konishi, T. 1975. Reverse mutation at the ligule-less locus (li) of barley. BGN 5:21-23.
6. Konishi, T. 1981. Reverse mutation and interallelic recombination at the ligule-less locus in barley. p. 838-845. In M.J.C. Ascher, R.P. Ellis, A.M. Hayter, and R.N.H. Whitehouse. (eds.) Barley Genetics. IV. Proc. Fourth Int. Barley Genet. Symp. Edinburgh. Edinburgh University Press.
7. Lundqvist, U. (Unpublished).
8. Pozzi, C., D. di Pietro, G. Halas, C. Roig, and F. Salamini. 2003. Integration of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) molecular linkage map with the position of genetic loci hosting 29 developmental mutants. Heredity 90:390-396.
9. Robertson, D.W., G.A. Wiebe, and R.G. Shands. 1955. A summary of linkage studies in barley: Supplement II, 1947-1953. Agron. J. 47:418-425.
10. Takahashi, R., J. Yamamoto, S. Yasuda, and Y. Itano. 1953. Inheritance and linkage studies in barley. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Forsch. 10:29-52.
11. Woodward, R.W. 1957. Linkages in barley. Agron. J. 49:28-32.


T. Tsuchiya and T.E. Haus. 1971. Barley Genet. Newsl. 1:120.


J.D. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, T. Konishi. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:96.
U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2007. Barley Genet. Newsl. 37:205-206.
U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2012. Barley Genet. Newsl. 42:116-117.
U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2015. Barley Genet. Newsl. 45:93-94.