International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks
BGS 146, Calcaroides-d, cal-d
Stock number: BGS 146
Locus name: Calcaroides-d
Locus symbol: cal-d
Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:
Monofactorial recessive (5, 6).
Located in chromosome 3H (7); cal-d.4 is near the centromere and near molecular marker CDO684 (7); cal-d.4 is associated with SNP markers 1_0672 to 2_1502 (positions 58.56 to 100.48 cM) in 3H of the Bowman backcrossed-derived line BW106 (2), in 3H bin 06.
At the tip of the lemma proper, in a position corresponding to the transition between lemma and awn, cal-d mutants bear a well-organized ectopic structure, the sac (1, 54). Only the allele cal-d.22 does not produce pronounced lemma wings. The cal-d mutants bear a short distal awn (7). In contrast to the Kap1 (Hooded lemma 1) phenotype, the sac does not develop into an epiphyllous flower. The cal-d alleles are associated with leaf curling also (7). The awn malformation of cal-d mutants is associated with developmental activation of the phytomeric triad separating the lemma from awn (4). Plants of the Bowman backcross-derived line for cal-d.4, BW106, were about 3/4 of normal height and headed one day later than Bowman. Awns were 1/2 and peduncles were 2/3 of normal length and leaf blades were slightly narrower. Kernels of BW106 were thin and weighted about 1/3 less than those of Bowman. Test weights were low and grain yields were less than 1/2 of normal (3).
Origin of mutant:
An X-ray induced mutant in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333) (6, 7).
cal-d.4 (NGB 114284, GSHO 1698) in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333) (6); cal-d.14 (NGB 119381) in Kristina (NGB 1500, 14661), -d.18 (NGB 114297), -d.22 (NGB 114301, 114302) in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (6).
Mutant used for description and seed stocks:
cal-d.4 (NGB 114284, GSHO 1698) in Foma; cal-d.4 in Bowman (PI 483237)*6 (GSHO 1875); cal-d.4 in Bowman*7 (BW106, NGB 20512).
1. Bossinger, G., U. Lundqvist, W. Rohde, and F. Salamini. 1992. Genetics of plant development in barley. p. 989-1017. In L. Munck, K. Kirkegaard, and B. Jensen (eds.). Barley Genetics VI. Proc. Sixth Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Helsingborg, 1991. Munksgaard Int. Publ., Copenhagen.
2. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2010. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiology. Epubl. 2010 November 18, 2010 as DOI:10.1104/pp110.166249.
3. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).
4. Franckowiak, J.D., B.P. Forster, U. Lundqvist, J. Lyon, I. Pitkethly, and W.T.B. Thomas. 2010. Developmental mutants as a guide to the barley phytomer. pp. 46-60. In: S. Ceccarelli and S. Grando (eds), Proc. 10th International Barley Genetics Symposium, 5-10 April 2008, Alexandria Egypt. ICARDA, PO Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria.
5. Gustafsson, Å., A. Hagberg, U. Lundqvist, and G. Persson. 1969. A proposed system of symbols for the collection of barley mutants at Svalöv. Hereditas 62:409-414.
6. Lundqvist, U. 1993 Coordinator's report: Ear morphology genes. Barley Genet. Newsl. 22:137-139.
7. Pozzi, C., P. Faccioli, V. Terzi, A.M. Stanca, S. Cerioli, P. Castiglioni, R. Fink, R. Capone, K.J. Müller, G. Bossinger, W. Rohde, and F. Salamini. 2000. Genetics of mutations affecting the development of a barley floral bract. Genetics 154:1335-1346.
U. Lundqvist and J. D. Franckowiak. 2002. Barley Genet. Newsl. 32:97.
U. Lundqvist and J. D. Franckowiak. 2010. Barley Genet. Newsl. 40:58-59.