International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 33, Anthocyanin-less 1, ant1

BGN  48:68
Stock number: BGS 33
Locus name: Anthocyanin-less 1
Locus symbol: ant1

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Purple pericarp = P (14, 16, 17).
Red pericarp = Re (13).
Green stem = rs (1).
Purple lemma (second gene) = C (17).
Exrubrum-a = rub-a (6).
Hordeum vulgare Myb protein Colorless 1 ortholog H1 = HvMpc1-H1 (13, 15).
Purple seed coat color = Psc (18).


Monofactorial recessive (1, 9). The first of two dominant complementary genes Pre1 and Pre2 (Red and lemma and pericarp 1 and 2) that control purple or red pigmentation of the lemma, palea, and pericarp (2, 12, 14, 17, 19, 20).
Located in chromosome 7HS (1, 8); ant1.b is near the centromere (4); ant1 mutants are near the ert-m (erectoides-m) locus (10, 19); ant1.b is about 15.0 cM distal from the nud1 (naked caryopsis 1) locus (1); Rst1.a is associated with SNP markers 2_0074 to 2_0113 (positions 71.81 to 75.21 cM) in 7H bin 05 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW762 (3); ant1.1 is associated with SNP markers 1_0838 to 2_0103 (positions 49.53 to 139.86 cM) in 7H bins 04 to 08 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW013 (3); the Ant1 locus is close to the erectoides-m (ert-m) locus in a 4.7 cM interval flanked by SNP markers 3_0576 and 1_0721 (18); a locus controlling anthocyanin pigment is in 7HS (18, 20), in 7H bin 05.


When grown under favorable light conditions, red pigmentation of the stem does not develop (1). As plants approached maturity, anthocyanin pigments are not observed in the stem, auricles, awns, or lemma veins of induced ant1 mutants (1,, 6, 10). However, moderate to strong pigmentation of these plant parts is observed in plants homozygous for the normal allele Rst1.a at this locus (1, 19). The ant1.b allele, which occurs frequently in cultivars of Manchurian origin and is present in Bowman (PI 483237, NGB 22812), reduces considerably the red pigmentation of stem, auricles, awns, and lemma veins. Expression of alleles at the Ant1 locus is easier to observe at the stem base of seedlings. (5, 19). Sequencing of HvERECTA in barley ert-m (erectoides-m) mutants identified full gene deletions in both ert-m.40 and ert-m.64, which additionally caused anthocyanin deficiency. Analyses of ert-m and ant1 single and double deletion mutants suggested that Ant1 encodes a R2R3 myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factor (8, 13, 19).The ant1.b variant is a leaky mutant that can synthesize small amounts of anthocyanin (19). The relative anthocyanin content of the leaf sheath extracts from Bowman (ant1.b) as measured by OD530 (anthocyanin content measured spectrophotometrically at 530 nm) was less than half that of Bowman backcross-derived lines with the normal allele, Ant1.a (HvMpc1) (13). The combination of dominant alleles at the Ant1 and the Pre2 (Red lemma and pericarp 2) loci produces reddish to purple grain color (13, 18, 20).

Origin of mutant:

Natural occurrence in some cultivars, frequently in those of Oriental origin (1, 13, 17, 18); an alpha ray induced mutant in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (9).

Mutational events:

ant1.b (rst1.b) in Manchurian introductions (5, 13); ant1.1 (NGB 114552), ant1.2 (NGB 114553), ant1.4 (NGB 114555) in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (9); ant1.56 in Bonus (9); ant1.56 in Bonus (9); ert-m.40 (NGB 112640) and ert -m.64 (NGB 112663) with ant1 mutant in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (7, 11, 13);.ant1.b or an unnamed variant in hulless Chinese landraces (18).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

ant1.1 (NGB 114552, GSHO 1620) in Bonus; ant1.1 from Bonus in Bowman (PI 483237. NGB 22812)*3 (BW013, NGB 20421); Ant1.a (Rst1.a) in Goldfoil (PI 5975, GSHO 185) (1, 3); ant1.b from six-rowed Manchurian type cultivars is in Bowman (5); Ant1.a from Mut. 4128 of Haisa (PI 197617) in Bowman*6 (GSHO 1834); Ant1.a from Mut. 4128 in Bowman*7 (BW762, NGB 22230); .Ant1.a with Pre2.b in Bowman*9 (GSHO 1926, BW648, NGB 22213).


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5. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).
6. Gustafsson, Å., A. Hagberg, U. Lundqvist, and G. Persson. 1969. A proposed system of symbols for the collection of barley mutants at Svalöv. Hereditas 62:409-414.
7. Hagberg, A., Å. Gustafsson, and L. Ehrenberg. 1958. Sparsely contra densely ionizing radiations and the origin of erectoid mutants in barley. Hereditas 44:523-530.
8. Himi, E., and S. Taketa. 2015. Isolation of candidate genes for the barley Ant1 and wheat Rc genes controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in different vegetative tissues. Mol. Genet. Genomics 290:1287-1298.
9. Jende-Strid, B., and U. Lundqvist. 1978. Diallelic tests of anthocyanin-deficient mutants. Barley Gent. Newsl. 8:57-59.
10. Jende-Strid, B. 1984. Coordinator's report: Anthocyanin genes. Barley Gent. Newsl. 14:76-79.
11. Persson, G., and A. Hagberg. 1969. Induced variation in a quantitative character in barley. Morphology and cytogenetics of erectoides mutants. Hereditas 61:115-178.
11. Shoeva, O.Y., T.V. Kukoeva, A. Börner, and E.K. Khlestkina. 2015. Barley Ant1 is a homolog of maize C1 and its product is part of the regulatory machinery governing anthocyanin synthesis in the leaf sheath. Plant Breed. 134:400-405.
12. Robertson, D.W., G.A. Wiebe, and F.R. Immer. 1941. A summary of linkage studies in bar1ley. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 33:47-64.
13. Shoeva, O.Y., T.V. Kukoeva, A. Börner, and E.K. Khlestkina. 2015. Barley Ant1 is a homolog of maize C1 and its product is part of the regulatory machinery governing anthocyanin synthesis in the leaf sheath. Plant Breed. 134:400-405.
14. Smith, L. 1951. Cytology and genetics of barley. Bot. Rev. 17:1-51, 133-202, 285-355.
15. Strygina, K.V., and E.K. Khlestkina. 2019. Structural and functional divergence of the Mpc1 genes in wheat and barley. BMC Evolutionary Biology 19 (Suppl 1):45.
16. Ubisch, G. von. 1919. Beitrag zu einer Faktorenanalyse von Gerste. II. Z. Indukt. Abstammungs. Vererbungsl. 20:65-117.
17. Woodward, R.W., and J.W. Thieret. 1953. A genetic study of complementary genes for purple lemma, palea and pericarp in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Agron. J. 45:182-185.
18. Yao, X., K. Wu, Y. Yao, Y. Bai, J. Ye, and D. Chi. 2018. Construction of a high-density genetic map: genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to map purple seed coat color (Psc) in hulless barley. Hereditas 155:37.
19. Zakhrabekova, S., C. Dockter, K. Ahmann, I. Braumann, S.P. Gough, T. Wendt, U. Lundqvist, M. Mascher, N. Stein, and M. Hansson. 2015. Genetic linkage facilitates cloning of Ert-m regulating plant architecture in barley and identified a strong candidate of Ant1 involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Plant Mol. Biol. 88:609-626.
20. Zhang, X.-W., Q.-T. Jiang, Y.-M. Wei, and C. Liu. 2017. Inheritance analysis and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling individual anthocyanin compounds in purple barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains. PLoS ONE 12(8): e0183704.


T.E. Haus. 1975. Barley Gent. Newsl. 5:96 as BGS 15, Red stem, Rs.


J.D. Franckowiak. 1997. Barley Gent. Newsl. 26:82.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2012. Barley Gent. Newsl. 42:89-90.
Franckowiak and U. Lundqvist. 2016. Barley Genet. Newsl. 46:49-50.
J.D. Franckowiak and U. Lundqvist. 2018. Barley Genet. Newsl. 48:68-70.