International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 621, Calcaroides-c, Cal-c

BGN  41:195
Stock number: BGS 621
Locus name: Calcaroides-c
Locus symbol: Cal-c

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:



Monofactorial dominant (5, 6).
Located in chromosome 5HL (7); Cal-c.15 is very close or allelic to cal-b (calcaroides-b) locus and near molecular marker WG530 in 5H bin 06 (7); Cal-c.15 is associated with SNP markers 1_1198 to 1_0869 (positions 73.70 to 264.33 cM) in 5H bins 04 to 13 of the Bowman backcrossed-derived line BW105 (2), in 5H bin 06.


At the tip of the lemma proper, in a position corresponding to the transition between lemma and awn, the Cal-c mutant bear a well-organized ectopic structure, the sac plus pronounced lemma wings (1, 7). The distal awn is short and develops small wings (7). In contrast to the Kap1 (hooded lemma 1) phenotype, the sac does not develop into an epiphyllous flower. Leaf knots were observed, but leaf curling was not (7). The awn malformation of Cal-c mutants is caused by developmental activation of the phytomeric triad separating the lemma from awn (4). Expression of the Cal-c phenotype is stronger in homozygotes and more pronounced in spikelets near the tip of the spike (3). In the Bowman backcrossed-derived line BW105, plants were slightly shorter than Bowman and the awns as measured from the tip of the spike were short, 5 vs. 12 cm. Leaf blade widths were about 2/3 of normal length and the spikes had 3 to 4 fewer kernels. Kernels of BW105 were thinner than those of Bowman and weighed about 20% less. Grain yields approached 1/2 of normal (3).

Origin of mutant:

A neutron induced mutant in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (5, 6).

Mutational events:

Cal-c.15 (NGB 114294, GSHO 1567) in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (6).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

Cal-c.15 (NGB 114294, GSHO 1567) in Bonus; Cal-c.15 in Bowman (PI 483237)*4 (GSHO 2188); Cal-c.15 in Bowman*6 (BW105, NGB 20511).


1. Bossinger, G., U. Lundqvist, W. Rohde, and F. Salamini. 1992 Genetics of plant development in barley. p. 989-1017. In L. Munck, K. Kirkegaard, and B. Jensen (eds.). Barley Genetics VI. Proc. Sixth Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Helsingborg, 1991. Munksgaard Int. Publ., Copenhagen.

2. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.

3. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).

4. Franckowiak, J.D., B.P. Forster, U. Lundqvist, J. Lyon, I. Pitkethly, and W.T.B. Thomas. 2010. Developmental mutants as a guide to the barley phytomer. pp. 46-60. In S. Ceccarelli and S. Grando (eds), Proc. 10th International Barley Genetics Symposium, 5-10 April 2008, Alexandria Egypt. ICARDA, PO Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria.

5. Gustafsson, Å., A. Hagberg, U. Lundqvist, and G. Persson. 1969. A proposed system of symbols for the collection of barley mutants at Svalöv. Hereditas 62:409-414.

6. Lundqvist, U. 1993 Coordinator's report: Ear morphology genes. Barley Genet. Newsl. 22:137-139.

7. Pozzi, C., P. Faccioli, V. Terzi, A.M. Stanca, S. Cerioli, P. Castiglioni, R. Fink, R. Capone, K.J. Müller, G. Bossinger, W. Rohde, and F. Salamini. 2000. Genetics of mutations affecting the development of a barley floral bract. Genetics 154:1335-1346.


U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2002. Barley Genet. Newsl. 32:122.


J.D. Franckowiak and U. Lundqvist. 2011. Barley Genet. Newsl. 41:195-196.