International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 595, Anthocyanin-deficient 4, ant4

BGN  45:216
Stock number: BGS 595
Locus name: Anthocyanin-deficient 4
Locus symbol: ant4

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Exrubrum = rub (4).


Monofactorial recessive (6, 7).
Located in chromosome 4H (1); ant4.16 is associated with SNP markers 2_1122 to 1_1500 (positions 47.7 to 115.92 cM) in 4H bins 05 to 08 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW024 and also with SNP markers 2_0972 to 1_0139 (positions 156.09 to 160.38 cM) in 6H bin 09 of BW024 (1).


Depending on the growing conditions, a slight pigmentation can be observed in the auricles, awns and lemmas of ant4 mutant plants. The amount of anthocyanin pigmentation was clearly decreased compared to the mother cultivars (5, 8). The original mutant alleles, ant4.16 and ant4.17, were taller and later maturing than their mother cultivar Foma (5, 7). The Bowman backcrossed derived line for ant4.16 (BW024) was 10 to 20% taller than Bowman in both field and greenhouse tests, partially because its peduncles were longer (2). Earlier heading of BW024 was observed under glasshouse and short-day conditions, but not under long-day conditions (2). BW024 plants lodged more than Bowman in field tests. The spikes of BW024 had one to three fewer kernels and rachis internodes were slightly shorter. Kernels of BW024 were 10 to15% lighter and grain yields were slightly lower than those of Bowman (2).

Origin of mutant:

An ethylene imine induced mutant in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333) (5).

Mutational events:

ant4.11 (NGB 114560), 4.16 (NGB 114565, GSHO 1642), 4.17 (NGB 114566), 4.28 (NGB 114583), 4.31 (NGB 114586) in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333) (7); ant4.32 (NGB 114587) in Foma (5); ant4.37 (NGB 114592) in Foma (7); ant4.40 (NGB 114595) in Bonus (NBG 14657, PI 189763) (7); ant4.44 (NGB 119349) in Bonus (6); ant4.53 (NGB 111870) in Bonus (5); ant4.124 in Nordal (NGB 4704, NGB 13680) (5).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

ant4.11 (NGB 114560) in Foma; ant 4.16 (NGB 114565, GSHO 1642) in Foma; ant4.16 in Bowman (PI 483237)*3 (GSHO 2267); ant4.16 in Bowman*7 (BW024, NGB 20432).


1. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.

2. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).

3. Gustafsson, Å., A. Hagberg, U. Lundqvist, and G. Persson. 1969. A proposed system of symbols for the collection of barley mutants at Svalöv. Hereditas 62:409-414.

4. Jende-Strid, B. 1978. Mutations affecting flavonoid synthesis in barley. Carlsberg Res. Commun. 43:265-273.

5. Jende-Strid, B. 1984. Coordinator's report: Anthocyanin genes. Barley Genet. Newsl. 14:57-59.

6. Jende-Strid, B. 1988. Coordinator's report: Anthocyanin genes. Stock list of ant mutants kept at the Carlsberg Laboratory. Barley Genet. Newsl. 18:74-79.

7. Jende-Strid, B., and U. Lundqvist. 1978. Diallelic tests of anthocyanin-deficient mutants. Barley Genet. Newsl. 8:57-59.


B. Jende-Strid. 1999. Barley Genet. Newsl. 29:83.


J.D. Franckowiak and U. Lundqvist. 2011. Barley Genet. Newsl. 41:189-190.
J.D. Franckowiak and U. Lundqvist. 2015. Barley Genet. Newsl. 45:216-217.