International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks
BGS 232, High lysine 4, Lys4
Stock number: BGS 232
Locus name: High lysine 4
Locus symbol: Lys4
Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:
Shrunken endosperm xenia 5 = sex5g (8).
4d = Lys4d High lysine (5).
Monofactorial incomplete dominant (1, 5).
Located in chromosome 1HS (5, 6, 8); Lys4.d is over 35.1 cM distal from the ert-b (erectoides-b) locus (6); Lys4.d is associated with SNP markers 2_0373 to 1_0744 (positions 0.0 to 39.84 cM) in 1H bins 01 to 03 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW497 (3).
At the hard dough stage, kernels homozygous for the Lys4.d gene develop a depression near the center of the lemma, which becomes progressively more distinct as the kernels mature. Grain produced by mutant plants has a 9% increase in lysine content (1, 2). Shrunken endosperm has a pleiotropic association with the high lysine gene Lys4.d (5). Kernels heterozygous at the Lys4 locus may develop a slightly less distinct depression on the dorsal side (5). Maintenance of Lys4.d stocks may be difficult because outcrosses are not recognized easily. Plants of Bowman backcross-derived line for Lsy4.d (BW497) were slightly shorter, and kernel weights and grain yields were about 2/3 of normal (4).
Origin of mutant:
An ethyl methanesulfonate induced mutant in Bomi Abed (NGB 5096, PI 43371) (2).
Lys4.d (Risø 8, GSHO 2475) in Bomi Abed (NGB 5096, PI 43371) (1, 2, 7).
Mutant used for description and seed stocks:
Lys4.d (GSHO 2475) in Bomi Abed; Lys4.d in Bowman (PI 483237, NGB 22812)*5 (GSHO 2035, BW497, NGB 20725).
1. Doll, H. 1976. Genetic studies of high lysine barley mutants. p. 542-546. In H. Gaul (ed.) Barley Genetics III. Proc. Third Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Garching, 1975. Verlag Karl Thiemig, München.
2. Doll, H., B. Køie, and P.O. Eggum. 1974. Induced high-lysine mutants in barley. Radiat. Bot. 14:73-80.
3. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2010. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.
4. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).
5. Jensen, J. 1979. Chromosomal location of one dominant and four recessive high-lysine genes in barley mutants. Vol. 1. p. 89-96. In Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes. Proc. Int. Symp., Neuherberg, Germany, 1978. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.
6. Jensen, J. 1981. Location of the high-lysine locus Lys4d on barley chromosome 5. Barley Genet. Newsl. 11:45-47.
7. Jensen, J., and H. Doll. 1979. Gene symbols for barley high-lysine mutants. Barley Genet. Newsl. 9:33-37.
8. Ullrich, S.E., and R.F. Eslick. 1978. Chromosome location evidence for Risø induced high lysine shrunken endosperm mutants of barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 8:114-125.
J.D. Franckowiak and U. Lundqvist. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:230.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2010. Barley Genet. Newsl. 40:80-81.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2018. Barley Genet. Newsl. 48:113-114.