International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 232, High lysine 4, Lys4

BGN  48:113
Stock number: BGS 232
Locus name: High lysine 4
Locus symbol: Lys4

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Shrunken endosperm xenia 5 = sex5g (8).
4d = Lys4d High lysine (5).


Monofactorial incomplete dominant (1, 5).
Located in chromosome 1HS (5, 6, 8); Lys4.d is over 35.1 cM distal from the ert-b (erectoides-b) locus (6); Lys4.d is associated with SNP markers 2_0373 to 1_0744 (positions 0.0 to 39.84 cM) in 1H bins 01 to 03 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW497 (3).


At the hard dough stage, kernels homozygous for the Lys4.d gene develop a depression near the center of the lemma, which becomes progressively more distinct as the kernels mature. Grain produced by mutant plants has a 9% increase in lysine content (1, 2). Shrunken endosperm has a pleiotropic association with the high lysine gene Lys4.d (5). Kernels heterozygous at the Lys4 locus may develop a slightly less distinct depression on the dorsal side (5). Maintenance of Lys4.d stocks may be difficult because outcrosses are not recognized easily. Plants of Bowman backcross-derived line for Lsy4.d (BW497) were slightly shorter, and kernel weights and grain yields were about 2/3 of normal (4).
No images

Origin of mutant:

An ethyl methanesulfonate induced mutant in Bomi Abed (NGB 5096, PI 43371) (2).

Mutational events:

Lys4.d (Risø 8, GSHO 2475) in Bomi Abed (NGB 5096, PI 43371) (1, 2, 7).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

Lys4.d (GSHO 2475) in Bomi Abed; Lys4.d in Bowman (PI 483237, NGB 22812)*5 (GSHO 2035, BW497, NGB 20725).


1. Doll, H. 1976. Genetic studies of high lysine barley mutants. p. 542-546. In H. Gaul (ed.) Barley Genetics III. Proc. Third Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Garching, 1975. Verlag Karl Thiemig, München.
2. Doll, H., B. Køie, and P.O. Eggum. 1974. Induced high-lysine mutants in barley. Radiat. Bot. 14:73-80.
3. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2010. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.
4. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).
5. Jensen, J. 1979. Chromosomal location of one dominant and four recessive high-lysine genes in barley mutants. Vol. 1. p. 89-96. In Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes. Proc. Int. Symp., Neuherberg, Germany, 1978. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.
6. Jensen, J. 1981. Location of the high-lysine locus Lys4d on barley chromosome 5. Barley Genet. Newsl. 11:45-47.
7. Jensen, J., and H. Doll. 1979. Gene symbols for barley high-lysine mutants. Barley Genet. Newsl. 9:33-37.
8. Ullrich, S.E., and R.F. Eslick. 1978. Chromosome location evidence for Risø induced high lysine shrunken endosperm mutants of barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 8:114-125.


J.D. Franckowiak and U. Lundqvist. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:230.


J.D. Franckowiak. 2010. Barley Genet. Newsl. 40:80-81.
J.D. Franckowiak. 2018. Barley Genet. Newsl. 48:113-114.