International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 323, Narrow leafed dwarf 1, nld1

BGN  26:271
Stock number: BGS 323
Locus name: Narrow leafed dwarf 1
Locus symbol: nld1

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:



Monofactorial recessive (6).
Located in chromosome 5HL (4, 6, 7); nld1.a is about 21.6 cM proximal from the fst1 (fragile stem 1) locus (3, 6). nld1.a is associated with SNP markers 2_1260 to 2_1133 (positions 77.47 to 124.50 cM) in 5H bins 04 to 07 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW635 (1).


Mutant plants have narrow, dark green leaves, which are erect with well-developed midribs. Auricles degenerate to tiny projections, but ligules are normal. Stem internodes are short, and the upper ones are curved. Spikelets are relatively narrow and small, and seed set may be low (5). ). Leaf blade widths were about 60% of those of wildtype plants and the lemma and palea only partially cover the caryopsis (8). The spike commonly emerges from the side of the sheath before anthesis. In the Bowman backcross-derived line for nld1.a, BW635, plants were short (1/3 to 2/3 normal height with plants short in heat stressed environments); peduncle were 1/3 to 1/2 normal length, and kernels were small and thin, about 1/2 normal weight. Grain yields of BW635 ranged from nil to about 20% of those recorded for Bowman (2). Map-based cloning revealed that NLD1 encodes a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3), an ortholog of the maize NARROW SHEATH genes. In situ hybridization showed that NLD1 transcripts were localized in the marginal edges of leaf primordia. NLD1 plays pivotal role in the increase of organ width and in the development of marginal tissues in lateral organs in barley (8).

Origin of mutant:

A spontaneous mutant in the F2 population of the cross Nagaoka (OUJ025) X Marumi 16 (OUJ007) isolated as "Nagaoka Dwarf" (5).

Mutational events:

nld1.a as Nagaoka dwarf (OUL054, GSHO 769) (5, 6, 7); nld1.d (nld1.b) in Kanto Nljo 29 (8).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

nld1.a as Nagaoka dwarf (GSHO 769); nld1.a in Bowman (PI 483237)*7 (GSHO 2093, BW635, NGB 22201).


1. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.
2. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).
3. Hayashi, J., I. Moriya, and R. Takahashi. 1983. A further study on linkage of the "dusky" mutant, dsk. Barley Genet. Newsl. 13:42-44.
4. Shahla, A., and T. Tsuchiya. 1984. Telotrisomic analysis in triplo 7S in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 14:52-53.
5. Takahashi, R., and J. Hayashi. 1966. Inheritance and linkage studies in barley. II. Assignment of several new mutant genes to their respective linkage groups by the trisomic method of analysis. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol., Okayama Univ. 13:185-198.
6. Takahashi, R., J. Hayashi, T. Konishi, and I. Moriya. 1972. Inheritance and linkage studies in barley. V. Locating seven new mutant genes. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol., Okayama Univ. 15:147-168.
7. Takahashi, R., J. Hayashi, and I. Moriya. 1971. Linkage studies in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 1:51-58.
8. Yoshikawa, T., S.-Y. Tanaka, Y. Masumoto, N. Nobori, H. Ishii, K.-I. Hibara, J.-I. Itoh, T. Tanisaka, and S. Taketa. 2016. Barley NARROW LEAFED DWARF1 encoding a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3) regulates the marginal development of lateral organs. Breed. Sci. 66:416-424.


T. Konishi and J.D. Franckowiak 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:271.


J.D. Franckowiak. 2016. Barley Genet. Newsl. 46:88-89.