International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 325, Curly lateral 1, crl1

BGN  41:129
Stock number: BGS 325
Locus name: Curly lateral 1
Locus symbol: crl1

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Curly laterals = cu (5).
Curly laterals = cl (4).


Monofactorial recessive (4, 5).
Located in chromosome 6H (1); crl1.a is associated with SNP markers 2_1473 to 2_1256 (positions 87.67 to 118.33 cM) in 6H bins 06 to 07 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW194 (1). Previously reported to be in 5HL over 30.4 cM distal from the raw1 (smooth awn 1) locus (4, 5); linkage to the Rph9 (reaction to Puccinia hordei 9) locus was not found (3).


Awns on lateral spikelets are curly or wavy, and lateral spikelets may be malformed and partially sterile. Central spikelets may have a twisted awn occasionally (4). The curly lateral trait is not expressed in all tillers (4).The crl1.a gene is expressed better in six-rowed spikes. In the Bowman backcross-derived line for crl1.a, BW194, awns seemed thinner and the awns of some spikelets were bent at odd angles (2). The awns of BW194 were about 20% shorter than those of Bowman. Kernels were about 10% shorter and thinner, and their weights were about 10% less than those of Bowman. Heading was often delayed by one or two days and spikes had 2 to 3 fewer kernels. Grain yields of BW194 were 1/2 to 2/3 those of Bowman (2).

Origin of mutant:

A gamma-ray induced mutant in Montcalm (CIho 7149) (4).

Mutational events:

crl1.a (Alb Acc 305, GSHO 1211) in Montcalm (CIho 7149) (4).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

crl1.a (GSHO 1211) in Montcalm; crl1.a in Bowman (PI 483237)*3 (GSHO 2146); crl1.a in Bowman*6 (BW194, NGB 22026).


1. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.
2. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).
3. Jin, Y., and J.D. Franckowiak. (Unpublished).
4. Walker, G.W.R., J. Dietrich, R. Miller, and K.J. Kasha. 1963. Recent barley mutants and their linkages II. Genetic data for further mutants. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 5:200-219.
5. Walker, G.W.R., K. Kasha, and R.A. Miller. 1958. Recombination studies in barley. Proc. Genet. Soc. Can. 3:41-43.


J.D. Franckowiak. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:273.


J.D. Franckowiak. 2011. Barley Genet. Newsl. 41:129.