International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 579, Praematurum-c, mat-c

BGN  46:125
Stock number: BGS 579
Locus name: Praematurum-c
Locus symbol: mat-c

Revised locus symbol

The mat-c mutants were demonstrated to be alleles at the early maturity 6 (Eam6) locus (1). However, continued use of the mat-c nomenclature as the locus and allele symbols is recommended because the large phenotypic differences occur between the early alleles at the Eam6 locus (see BGS 098) and the mat-c mutants.

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Early 16 = ea-c16 (6).
Praematurum-c = mat-c (16).
Earliness per se 2S = eps2S (9)
Hordeum vulgare CENTRORADIALIS = HvCEN (1, 14).
Early maturity 6 = Ea6 (1, 15).


Monofactorial recessive (6, 7).
Located in chromosome 2H (3); mat-c.19 is associated with SNP markers 1_0525 to 2_0781 (positions 46.10 to 135.19 cM) in 2H bins 05 to 09 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW508 (3); the praematurum-c (mat-c) mutants mapped at 57.5 cM and were determined to be the structural gene Hordeum vulgare CENTRORADIALIS (HvCEN) (1, 14); the mat-c.19 deletion is in a 0.27 cM segment of 2H near SNP markers 2_887, 2_0537, and 2_0390 (14), in 2H bin 07.


Early heading mutants at the mat-c locus show a rather drastic increase in earliness (heading 7 days earlier than the parents) under field cultivation in Sweden (6). When grown under controlled environmental conditions, mutants are photo- and thermoperiod sensitive and are classified as a pronounced long-day type (2, 5, 8). Slightly later heading of some mat-c alleles is reported (8, 13). Early heading is also associated with decreased culm length, kernels per spike, and grain yield. Mutants have reduced culm length, caused by the reduction in internode number, and the length of the peduncle is increased. Spike length and spikelet number are markedly reduced (2, 6). The mat-c mutants are variant in the barley homolog of Antirrhinum CENTRORADIALIS (HvCEN) (1).The mat-c.19 deletion and seven additional mat-c mutants affect the barley ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (AtTFL1) and Antirrhinum majus CENTRORADIALIS (AmCEN) gene (14). Not all mutant assigned to the mat-c allelic group have deletions or other structure change in the HvCEN gene (1, 14). In comparison to Bowman, the Bowman backcross-derived line for mat-c.19 (BW508) headed 5 to 8 days earlier, were 5 to 10% shorter, and 4 to 10 fewer fertile spikelets. Kernels were slightly larger and heavier, but grain yield was only 15 to 35% of that for Bowman (4).

Origin of mutant:

A neutron induced mutant in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (3).

Mutational events:

mat-c.16 (NGB 110016) in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (6); mat-c.19 (NGB 110019, GSHO 1789), -c.32 (NGB 110032), -c.93 (NGB 110093), -c.94 (NGB 110094) in Bonus, -c.101 (NGB 110101), -c.122 (NGB 110122), -c.400 (NGB 110400) in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333), -c.745 (NGB 110745) in Kristina (NGB 14661, NGB 1500), -c.758 (NGB 110758), -c.760 (NGB 110760), -c.770 (NGB 110770), -c.865 (NGB 110865), -c.881 (NGB 110881), -c.907116862), -c.910 (NGB 117441), -c.913 (NGB 117444, -c.926 (NGB 117457), -c.943 (NGB 117474) in Bonus, -c.966 (NGB 117497) in Sv 79353, -c.1091 (NGB 117622) in Sv Vg74233, -c.1096 (NGB 117627) in Sv Frida (NGB 1519), -c.1102 (NGB 117633) in Sv Semira (NGB 10716, NSL 206731), -c.1107 (NGB 119555), -c.1108 (NGB 119556), -c.1109 (NGB 119557), -c.1111 (NGB 119559), -c.1114 (NGB 119562), -c.1115 (NGB 119563) in Sv Frida , -c.1118 (NGB 119566), -c.1120 (NGB 119568) in Sv Semira (11, 12, 13). The early variant (haplotype II) at the Eam6 (HvCEN) locus is present in many domesticated winter barley accessions (1); Bowman (PI 483237) has .the Eam6.h allele (haplotype I) at the mat-c or Eam6 locus (1). The late allele (haplotype III) at the HvCEN locus is present in European barley cultivars (1).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

mat-c.19 (NGB 110019, GSHO 1789) in Bonus; mat-c.19 in Bowman (PI 483237)*2 (GSHO 2283); mat-c.19 in Bowman*6 (BW508, NGB 20736); Eam6.h (haplotype I) from Nordic (CIho 15216) is present in Bowman (1, 4).


1. Comadran, J., B. Kilian, J. Russell, L. Ramsay, N. Stein, M. Ganal, P. Shaw, M. Bayer, W. Thomas, D. Marshall, P. Hedley, A. Tondelli, N. Pecchioni, E. Francia, V. Korzun, A. Walther, and R. Waugh. 2012. Natural variation in a homolog of Antirrhinum CENTRORADIALIS contributed to spring growth habit and environmental adaptation in cultivated barley. Nature Genet. 44:1388-1392.

2. Dormling, I., and Å. Gustafsson. 1969. Phytotron cultivation of early barley mutants. Theor. Appl. Genet. 39:51-61.

3. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.

4. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).

5. Gustafsson, Å., I. Dormling, and U. Lundqvist. 1982. Gene, genotype and barley climatology. Biol. Zent. Bl. 101:763-782.

6. Gustafsson, Å., A. Hagberg, and U. Lundqvist. 1960. The induction of early mutants in Bonus barley. Hereditas 46:675-699.

7. Gustafsson, Å., A. Hagberg, U. Lundqvist, and G. Persson. 1969. A proposed system of symbols for the collection of barley mutants at Svalöv. Hereditas 62:409-414.

8. Gustafsson, Å., and U. Lundqvist 1976. Controlled environment and short-day tolerance in barley mutants. p. 45-53. In Induced Mutants in Cross-breeding. Proc. Advisory Group, Vienna, 1975. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.

9. Laurie, D.A., N. Pratchett, J.H. Bezant, and J.W. Snape. 1995. RFLP mapping of five major genes and eight quantitative trait loci controlling flowering time in a winter × spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cross. Genome 38:575-585.

10. Locatelli, A., A. Cuesta-Marcos, L. Gutiérrez, P.M. Hayes, K.P. Smith, and A.J. Castro. 2013. Genome-wide association mapping of agronomic traits in relevant barley germplasm in Uruguay. Mol. Breeding 31:631-654.

11. Lundqvist, U. 1991. Swedish mutation research in barley with plant breeding aspects. A historical review. p. 135-148. In Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement. Proc. Int. Symp. Vienna, 1990. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.

12. Lundqvist, U. 1992. Coordinator's report: Earliness genes. Barley Genet. Newsl. 21:127-129.

13. Lundqvist, U. (Unpublished).

14. Matyszczak, I. 2014. Characterization of early maturity barley mutants praematurum-a, -b and –c. PhD. Thesis, Aarhus University, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Denmark.

15. Robertson, D.W., G.A. Wiebe, R.G. Shands, and A. Hagberg. 1965. A summary of linkage studies in cultivated barley, Hordeum species: Supplement III, 1954-1963. Crop Sci. 5:33-43.

16. Søgaard, B., and P. von Wettstein-Knowles. 1987. Barley: genes and chromosomes. Carlsberg Res. Commun. 52:123-196.


U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:506.


U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2016. Barley Genet. Newsl. 46:125-127.