International Database for Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks

BGS 556, Breviaristatum-o, ari-o

BGN  45:200
Stock number: BGS 556
Locus name: Breviaristatum-o
Locus symbol: ari-o

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Breviaristatum-40 = ari-40 (11).
Erectoides-56 = ert56 (7); ert-u.56 (see BGS 092).
Brachytic 5 = br5 (14).
Erectoides-159 = ert-159 (12); ert-zd.159 (see BGS 093).
Brachytic 7 = br7 (14).
Brachytic-q = brh.q (4); brh14.q (see BGS 148) (2).
Braxchytic-af = (2, 5); (see BGS 148) (2).
Brachytiv-v = brh-v (4); brh16.v (see BGS 044) (2).


Monofactorial recessive (11).
Located in chromosome 7HL (3); ari-o.40 is associated with SNP markers 1_0547 and 3_0166 (about position 232 cM) in 7H bin 14 of the Bowman backcross-derived line BW053 (3). ari-o.40 is an allele at the HvDIM locus located in chromosome 7H at position 138.2 cm (2) in the barley genome map (13).


Plants of the ari-o.40 mutant have redused awn length (11), but they are semidwarf (2/3 normal height) and can be placed in the brachytic class of semidwarfs (4). The culm may have a short or extra internode and a leafy bract below the spike. The peduncle is often slightly coiled, and the basal rachis internode is elongated. Kernels are globe-shaped, and awns are about 3/4 normal length (11). Plants of BW053, the Bowman backcross-derived line for mutant ari-o.40, were about 25% shorter than Bowman, 65 vs. 90 cm, and awns were about 3 cm shorter. Rachis internode lengths and kernels were slightly shorter for BW053, but spikes had 2 to 3 more kernels. Kernels of BW053 were slightly shorter than those of Bowman. Kernel weights varied from slightly more to 20% less. Grain yields for BW053 varied from 20 to 50% of the Bowman yields (5). As with other mutants at the ari-o locus, ari-o.40 shows a brassinosteroid-deficient phenotype that includes a short culm, about 70% of normal, caused largely by an extreme shortening of the second culm internode (2). Other common traits include shorter rachis internodes, short awns, acute leaf angles, slightly undulating basal leaf blade margins, and a slightly elongated basal rachis internode (2). The six Bowman backcross-derived lines with a mutation at the ari-o or HvDIM locus, ari-o.40,, brh14.q, brh16.v, ert-u.56, and ert-zd.159, have retained a small, common genetic donor parent interval (2). The sequence of HvDIM, encoding the barley Δ5-sterol-Δ24-reductase DIMINUTO, corresponds directly to single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker 1_0547 located in the telomere on the long arm of chromosome 7H (2).

Origin of mutant:

An ethylene imine induced mutant in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (11).

Mutational events:

ari-o.40 (NGB 115890, GSHO 1663), -o.43 (NGB 115894) in Bonus (NGN 14657, PI 189763) (11); ari-o.143 (NGB 115953) in Foma (NGB 14659, CIho 11333) (12); ert-u.56 (NGB 112655, GSHO 496) in Bonus (NGB 14657, PI 189763) (2, 7); ert-zd.159 (NGB 112758, GSHO 504) in Bonus (2, 12); brh14.q (OUM131, dw-d, DWS1035, GSHO 1682) in Akashinriki (OUJ659, PI 467400) (2, 5, 7, 9, 10); (FN46, GSHO 3706) in Steptoe (CIho 15229) (2, 3, 8); brh16.v in HE 2816 (DWS1176, GSHO 1686) from a cross between two semidwarf mutants (6, 15). Previously ari-o.297 (uzu1.297, NGB 116118), ari-o.301 (uzu1.301, NGB 116124), ari-o.306 (uzu1.306, NGB 116133) in Kristina (NGB 14661, NGB 1500) were recorded as alleles at the ari-o locus (12), but retesting demonstrated allelism at the uzu 1 (uzu1) locus and the mutants were renamed (2). The ari-o.304 (ari-u.304, NGB 116129) mutant in Kristina was shown to be an allele at ert-t (HvBRD) locus and renamed ari-u.304 (2).

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

ari-o.40 (NGB 115890, GSHO 1663) in Bonus; ari-o.40 in Bowman (PI 483237)*6 (GSHO 2162); ari-o.40 in Bowman*7 (BW053, NGB 20461); ert-u.56 (NGB 112655, GSHO 496) in Bonus; ert-u.56 in Bowman (PI 483237)*8 (GSHO 1904, BW325, NGB 22120); ert-zd.159 (NGB 112758, GSHO 504) in Bonus ; ert-zd.159 in Bowman (PI 483237)*7 (GSHO 1901, BW333, NGB 22128); brh14.q (GSHO 1682) in Akashinriki; brh14.q in Bowman (PI 483237)*6 (GSHO 2175, BW085, NGB 20492); (GSHO 3706) from Steptoe in Bowman*7 (BW072, NGB 20479); brh16.v in HE 2816/Bowman (GSHO 1686); brh16.v in Bowman (PI 483237)*7 (GSHO 2177, BW087, NGB 20494).


1. Dahleen, L.S., L.J. Vander Wal, and J.D. Franckowiak. 2005. Characterization and molecular mapping of genes determining semidwarfism in barley. J. Hered. 96:654-662.

2. Dockter, C., D. Gruszka, I, Braumann, A. Druka, I. Druka, J. Franckowiak, S.P. Gough, A. Janeczko, M. Kurowska, J. Lundqvist, U. Lundqvist, M. Marzec, I. Matyszczak, A.H. Müller, J. Oklestkova, B. Schulz, S, Zakhrabekova, and M. Hansson. 2014. Induced variations in brassinosteroid genes define barley height and sturdiness, and expand the green revolution genetic toolkit. Plant Physiol. 166:1912-1927.

3. Druka, A., J. Franckowiak, U. Lundqvist, N. Bonar, J. Alexander, K. Houston, S. Radovic, F. Shahinnia, V. Vendramin, M. Morgante, N. Stein, and R. Waugh. 2011. Genetic dissection of barley morphology and development. Plant Physiol. 155:617-627.

4. Franckowiak, J.D. 1995. The brachytic class of semidwarf mutants in barley. Barley Genet. Newsl. 24:56-59.

5. Franckowiak, J.D. (Unpublished).

6. Franckowiak, J.D., and A. Pecio. 1992. Coordinator’s report: Semidwarf genes. A listing of genetic stocks. Barley Genet. Newsl. 21:116-127.

7. Hagberg, A., Å. Gustafsson, and L. Ehrenberg. 1958. Sparsely contra densely ionizing radiations and the origin of erectoid mutants in barley. Hereditas 44:523-530.

8. Kleinhofs, A. (Unpublished).

9. Konishi, T. 1976. The nature and characteristics of EMS-induced dwarf mutants in barley. p. 181-189. In H. Gaul (ed.). Barley Genetics III. Proc. Third Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Garching, 1975. Verlag Karl Thiemig, München.

10. Konishi, T. 1977. Effects of induced dwarf genes on agronomic characters in barley. p. 21-38. In Use of dwarf mutations. Gamma-Field Symposium No. 16.

11. Kucera, J., U. Lundqvist, and Å. Gustafsson. 1975. Inheritance of breviaristatum mutants in barley. Hereditas 80:263-278.

12. Lundqvist, U. (Unpublished).

13. The International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium. 2012. A physical, genetic and functional sequence assembly of the barley genome. Nature 491:711-716.

14. Tsuchiya, T. 1976. Allelism testing of genes between brachytic and erectoides mutants. Barley Genet. Newsl. 6:79-81.

15. Váša, M. 1986. (Personal communications).


U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 1997. Barley Genet. Newsl. 26:482.


U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2011. Barley Genet. Newsl. 41:186.
U. Lundqvist and J.D. Franckowiak. 2015. Barley Genet. Newsl. 45:200-202.